Advanced basal cell carcinoma: What dermatologists need to know about diagnosis

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common human cancer, with approximately 3.6 million cases diagnosed each year. About 2000 deaths annually in the United States are attributed to basal and squamous cell skin cancers. There is a direct link between ultraviolet exposure and the development of BCC, as UV exposure damages DNA and induces mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Aberrations in the hedgehog pathway can also result in BCC, highlighted by the fact that most cases of sporadic BCCs have been found to have mutations in different genes involved in the hedgehog pathway.