[Grand Round] Facial Balamuthia mandrillaris infection with neurological involvement in an immunocompetent child

Cutaneous infection by Balamuthia mandrillaris is a rare condition that is sometimes complicated by life-threatening CNS involvement. It often evades timely diagnosis due to its rarity and non-specific clinical manifestations. Patients can be either immunocompetent or immunocompromised. It is probably transmitted via inhalation or inoculation through broken skin, and then spreads to the brain and other organs through haematogenous spread. It is important for clinicians to be aware of this disease because rapid diagnosis and subsequent therapy has, in some cases, been associated with survival.