High?frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of the spectrum of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: Noninvasively distinguishing actinic keratosis, Bowen's Disease, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma

AbstractObjective

To evaluate high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) features for diagnosing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) as a spectrum of progressively advanced malignancies, including precursor actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD), and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (iSCC).

Method

In this retrospective study, 160 skin lesions diagnosed histopathologically (54 AK, 54 BD, and 52 iSCC) in 160 patients were included. The HFUS features of AK, BD, and iSCC were analyzed. The obtained data were evaluated using univariate and forward multivariate logistic regression analyses.

Results

The most significant HFUS features in AK were regular surface (odds ratio [OR], 8.42) and irregular basal border (OR, 6.36). The most significant HFUS features in BD were crumpled surface (OR, 19.62) and layer involvement confined to the epidermis (OR, 3.96). The most significant HFUS features in iSCC were concave surface (OR, 27.06), stratum corneum (SC) detachment (OR, 14.41), irregular basal border (OR, 4.01), and convex surface (OR, 3.73). The characteristics of surface features, basal border, and layer involvement could be valuable HFUS clues in the discrimination of AK, BD, and iSCC.

Conclusion

High-frequency ultrasound is valuable for the differentiation of AK, BD, and iSCC, which may allow dynamic and noninvasive monitoring in the spectrum of cSCC.